Yolngu are people of the Arnhem region in north east Arnhem Land, neighbours of the Wamindilyakwa, Nunggubuyu, Ngalkbun, Rembamga, Dangbon and Burarra peoples.

There are many different ways in which people can be described depending an their relationships and where they live. The Yolngu matha (land-owning groups) are divided into two moieties, Yirritja and Dhuwa, and each person inherits membership of a group and its moiety from his or her father.